An Encyclopaedia of English Medieval Carpentry

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The following two sources have been invaluable in the compilation of this encyclopaedia:

ALCOCK, N. W. et al., Recording Timber-Framed Buildings: an Illustrated Glossary (York: Council for British Archaeology, 1996)

BRUNSKILL, R. W., Timber Building in Britain (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2nd ed., 2007)

Tree-ring dates are taken from Vernacular Architecture, The Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Group (Maney Publishing)
and from the Archaeology Data Service (ADSDD)

Useful Websites:  Links

Further Reading:

ACLAND, JAMES H., Medieval Structure: The Gothic Vault (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972)

ADDY, S. O, The Evolution of the English House, ed. J. Summerson (London: Allen & Unwin, 1933)

Age of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet England 1200-1400, eds. Jonathan Alexander & Paul Binski (London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1987)

ALCOCK, N. W., Cruck Construction: an Introduction and Catalogue (London: Council for British Archaeology, 1981)

ANDREWS, FRANCIS B., The Mediaeval Builder and his Methods (Wakefield, Yorks.: EP Publishing Ltd., 1974)

ARNOLD, ALLISON & HOWARD, ROBERT, Church of St Andrew, Church Road, Cotton, Suffolk: tree-ring analysis of timbers (English Heritage, 2012)

BAINES, FRANK, Report... on the condition of the roof timbers of Westminster Hall... (London: HMSO, 1914)

BARLEY, M. W., Houses and History (London: Faber and Faber, 1986)

BARNWELL, P. S.; ADAMS, A. T., The House Within, Interpreting Medieval Houses in Kent (London: RCHME / HMSO, 1994)

BARNES, CARL F., The Portfolio of Villard De Honnecourt: A New Critical Edition and Color Facsimile (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009)

BECHMANN, ROLAND, Trees and Man: The Forest in the Middle Ages (New York: Paragon, 1990)

BEECH, ROBERT, 'The Hammer-beam Roof of Westminster Hall and the Structural Rationale of Hugh Herland', Architectural History, Vol. 59 (2016), pp. 25-61.

BEECH, ROBERT, 'Form v Function: The Structural Development of Early Fifteenth-Century Hammer-Beam Roofs', Transactions of the Construction History Society First National Conference (2014)

BEECH, ROBERT, 'The Hammer-Beam Roof: Tradition, Innovation and the Carpenter's Art in Late Medieval England', PhD Thesis, University of Birmingham (2015), available HERE

BENSON, TEDD, Building the Timber Frame House (New York: Simon & Schuster/Fireside Books, 1995)

BERGER, RAINER (ed.), Scientific Methods in Medieval Archaeology (Berkeley Ca.: University of California Press, 1970)

BINDING, GUNTHER, Medieval Building Techniques (Stroud: Tempus, 2004)

BLAIR, JOHN; RAMSEY, NIGEL (eds.), English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products (London: Hambledon, 1991)

BOND, FRANCIS, Gothic Architecture in England (London: Batsford, 1906)

BONNEY, HELEN '"Balle's Place", Salisbury: a 14th-Century Merchant's House', Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine, 59 (1964), pp. 155-67.

BRANDON, RAPHAEL & J. ARTHUR, The Open Timber Roofs of the Middle Ages (London: James Rimmell & Son, new ed., 1873)

BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, Medieval Art and Architecture at Lincoln Cathedral (BAA, 1986)

BRUNSKILL, R. W., The Illustrated Handbook of Vernacular Architecture (London: Faber& Faber, 4th ed., 2000)

BUCHANAN, P, 'Stirling Castle, Great Hall Hammerbeam Roof', in Janet Kleboe (ed.), Timber and the Built Environment (Edinburgh: Historic Scotland, 2002)

BUCHER, FRANCOIS, Architector: The Lodge and Sketchbooks of Medieval Architects (New York: Araris Books, 1979)

CAUTLEY, H. MUNRO, Suffolk Churches and their Treasures (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 5th Ed., 1982)

CAUTLEY, H. MUNRO, Norfolk Churches (Ipswich: Norman Adlard & Co., 1949)

CESCINSKY, HERBERT; GRIBBLE, ERNEST. R., Early English Furniture and Woodwork, 2 Vols. (London: The Waverley Book Company Ltd., 1922)

CESCINSKY, HERBERT; GRIBBLE ERNEST R., 'Westminster Hall and Its Roof', The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, Vol. 40, No. 227 (Feb., 1922), pp. 76-79, 82-84.

CHAPPELL, STEVE, A Timber Framer's Workshop (Brownfield, Maine: Fox Maple Press, 1998)

CHARLES, F.W.B. The Conservation of Timber Buildings (Shaftsbury: Donhead, 1995)

CLARKE, J., 'An Early Vernacular Hammer-beam Structure: Imberhorne Farm Cottages, East Grinstead, West Sussex', Vernacular Architecture 36 (2005), pp. 32-40.

CLIFTON-TAYLOR, ALEC, The Pattern of English Building (London : Faber and Faber, 1972)

COLDSTREAM, NICOLA, The Decorated Style: Architecture and Ornament, 1240-1360 (London: British Museum, 1994)

COLDSTREAM, NICOLA, Medieval Architecture (Oxford: OUP, 2002)

COLVIN, H. M. (ed.), The History of the King's Works, Vols. 1 - 3 (London: HMSO, 1963; 1975)

COOK, G. H., The English Mediaeval Parish Church (London: Phoenix House, 3rd ed., 1961)

CORDINGLEY, R. A., 'British Historical Roof-Types and Their Members: A Classification', Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society IX (London: The National Monuments Society, 1961), pp. 73-118

COTTINGHAM, LEWIS, NOCKALLS, Westminster Hall (London: Rodwell and Martin, 1822)

COURTENAY, L. T., 'Westminster Hall and its Fourteenth-century Sources', Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Dec. 1984), pp. 295-309.

COURTENAY, L. T. (ed.), The Engineering of Medieval Cathedrals (Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum, 1997)

COURTENAY, L. T; MARK, ROBERT, 'The Westminster Hall Roof: A Historiographic and Structural Study', Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 1987), pp. 374-393

CROOK, J, 'The Pilgrims' Hall, Winchester, Hammerbeams, Base Crucks and Aisle-Derivatives', Archaeologia 109 (1991), 129-159

CROSSLEY, FRED. H, Timber Building in England, From Early Times to the End of the Seventeenth Century, (London: Batsford, 1951)

DENEUX, HENRI, 'L'evolution des Charpentes ...' L'Architecte, (1927)

DOLLMAN, F. T; JOBBINS, I. R., An Analysis of Ancient Domestic Architecture in Great Britain, (London: Batsford, 1861)

DOWN, ALEC (ed.), Chichester Excavations 5 (Chichester: 1981)

DUNNAGE, H; LAVER, C., Plans, Elevations, Sections, Details, and Views, of the Great Hall of the Royal Palace of Eltham, in Kent (London: J. Taylor, and Priestley & Weale, 1828)

EDLIN, H. L., Woodland Crafts in Britain (London: Batsford, 1949)

ELLIS, GEORGE, Modern Practical Carpentry (London: Batsford, 3rd ed. revised, 1927 [1st ed., 1906])

EMERY, A, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales, 1300-1500, 3 Vols. (Cambridge: CUP, 1996)

EPAUD, FREDERIC, De la Charpente romane a la charpente gothique en Normandie ... (Caen: Publications du CRAHM, 2007)

ERSKINE, AUDREY M. (ed. & trans.), The Accounts of the Fabric of Exeter Cathedral, 1279-1353, (Devon and Cornwall Record Society, 1981-83)

FITCHEN, JOHN, The Construction of Gothic Cathedrals (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1961)

FOOT, N. et al, 'The High Roofs of the East End of Lincoln Cathedral', in British Archaeological Association, 1986.

FRISCH, TERESA. G, Gothic Art, 1140 - 1450: Sources and Documents (Toronto / London: University of Toronto Press, 1987)

FLETCHER, J. M; SPOKES, P. S, 'The Origin and Development of Crown-Post Roofs', Medieval Archaeology 8 (1964), pp. 152-183.

FLETCHER, J. M, 'Medieval Timberwork at Ely', in Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral (BAA, 1979)

GIMPEL, JEAN, The Cathedral Builders (London: Pimlico, 1993)

GOODMAN, W. L., The History of Woodworking Tools (London: Bell & Hyman, 1964)

GORDON, J. E., Structures, or Why Things Don't Fall Down (London: Penguin, 1978)

Gothic: Art for England 1400-1547, eds. Richard Marks and Paul Williamson (London: V&A, 2003)

GRENVILLE, JANE, Medieval Housing (London: Leicester University Press, 1997)

HAHNLOSER, HANS R. (ed.), Villard de Honnecourt: Kritische Gesamtausgabe des Bauhuttenbuches ms. fr. 19093 der Pariser Nationalbibliothek (Graz: Akadciteische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1972)

HARRIS, ESMOND; HARRIS, JEANETTE; JAMES, N. D. G., Oak: A British History (Macclesfield: Windgather, 2003)

HARRIS, ROLAND; MILES, DANIEL, 'Romanesque Westminster Hall and its Roof', in Rodwell & Tatton-Brown (eds.) Westminster II. The Art, Architecture and Archaeology of the Royal Palace (Leeds: BAA, 2015), pp. 22-71

HARVEY, JOHN H., 'The Mediaeval Carpenter and his Work as an Architect', RIBA Journal, 45 (1937-8)

HARVEY, JOHN H., Medieval Craftsmen (London: Batsford, 1975)

HARVEY, JOHN H., English Mediaeval Architects: a Biographical Dictionary Down to 1550 (Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 2nd ed. revised, 1984)

HARVEY, WILLIAM, 'Westminster Hall and the Woodman', The Builder, 1921, Vol. 121, 19 Aug, pp. 220-221

HARVEY, WILLIAM, 'Westminster Hall Roofs, Old and New', The Builder, 1921, Vol. 121, 23 Sept, pp. 374-375

HAWARD, BIRKIN, Suffolk Medieval Church Roof Carvings: A Photographic Survey of Carvings on Hammerbeam Roofs (Ipswich: Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History, 1999)

HEWETT, CECIL A., English Cathedral and Monastic Carpentry (Chichester: Phillimore, 1985)

HEWETT, CECIL A., English Historic Carpentry (Fresno, Ca.: Linden, 1997 [1st ed. 1980])

HEYMAN, JACQUES, 'Westminster Hall Roof', Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 37 (1967), pp. 137-162

HIGHAM, ROBERT; BARKER, PHILIP, Timber Castles (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1995)

HOBBS, MARY, Chichester Cathedral: An Historical Survey (Chichester: Phillimore, 1994)

HOFFSUMMER, PATRICK, Les Charpentes de toitures en Wallonie: typologie et dendrochronologie XIe-XIXe siecle (1995)

HOFFSUMMER, PATRICK, Roof Frames from the 11th to the 19th Century: Typology and Development in Northern France and in Belgium (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, c.2009)

HOLT, ELIZABETH GILMORE (ed.), A Documentary History of Art, Vol I: The Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981)

HOPPUS, EDWARD, Practical Measuring Made Easy to the Meanest Capacity (London: 1767)

HORN, WALTER; BORN, ERNEST, The Barns of the Abbey of Beaulieu at its Granges of Great Coxwell and Beaulieu-St Leonards (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965)

HORN, WALTER; BORN, ERNEST, The Plan of St. Gall ... (Berkeley; London: University of California Press, 1979)

HOWARD, F. E., 'On the Construction of Medieval Roofs', Archaeological Journal Vol. 71, 1914, pp. 293-352.

HOWARD, F. E; CROSSLEY, F.H., English Church Woodwork: a Study in Craftsmanship during the Mediaeval Period (London: Batsford, 1917)

HUGHES, J. QUENTIN, 'The Timber Roofs of York Minster', Yorkshire Archaeological Journal XXXVIII, pt. 152 (1955), pp. 474-495

INNOCENT, C. F, The Development of English Building Construction (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1971)

JANSE, H., Houten Kappen in Nederland 1000-1940 (Delft: Delftse Universitaire Pers, 1989)

JOUSSE, MATHURIN, L'Art de charpenterie... (Paris: Troisieme edition, 1751)

KEEN, LAURENCE; COCKE, THOMAS (eds.), Medieval Art and Architecture at Salisbury Cathedral (Tring: British Archaeological Association 1996)

KRAFFT, JOHANN CARL, Traite sur l'Art de la charpente ... trans. R. Cooper (Paris: 1819-22)

LAXTON, R. R., 'The Trusses of the St Hugh's Choir Roof', in British Archaeological Association, 1986.

LEWIS, ELIZABETH, et al., Medieval Hall Houses of the Winchester Area (Winchester: Winchester City Museum, 1988)

LEVIN, ED, 'Hammer-beam Roofs I & 2', Timber Framing 48 & 49, June 1998; September 1998.

LLOYD, NATHANIEL, History of the English House (London: The Architectural Press, 1975 [first pub. 1931])

MADDISON, JOHN, Ely Cathedral Design and Meaning (Ely: Ely Cathedral Publications, 2000)

MAINSTONE, ROWLAND, Developments in Structural Form (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1975)

MARK, ROBERT (ed.), Architectural Technology up to the Scientific Revolution: The Art and Structure of Large-scale Buildings (Cambridge, Mass., London: MIT Press, 1993)

MARREY, BERNARD, Des Histoires de bois (Paris: Editions du Pavillon de l'Arsenal: Picard, 1994)

MASON, REGINALD THOMAS, Framed Buildings of England (Horsham: Coach Publishing House Ltd., 1974)

McGRAIL, SEÁN, Woodworking Techniques before 1500 (Oxford: B.A.R., 1982)

MERCER, ERIC, Furniture 700-1700 (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969)

MERCER, ERIC, English Vernacular Houses: A Study of Traditional Farmhouses and Cottages (London: H.M.S.O., 1975)

MEIRION-JONES, GWYN; JONES, MICHAEL (eds.), Manorial Domestic Buildings in England and Northern France (London: Society of Antiquaries of London, 1993)

MILNE, GUSTAV, Timber Building Techniques in London c. 900-1400: an Archaeological Study of Waterfront Installations and Related Material (London: London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, 1992)

MOLES, ANTOINE, Histoire des charpentiers (Paris: 1949)

MORRIS, M. G; PERRING, F. H. (eds.), The British Oak: Its History and Natural History [B.S.B.I. Conference Reports, Number Fourteen] (Classey, 1974).

MORRIS, THOMAS, Brief Chapters on British Carpentry: History and Principles of Gothic Roofs (London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1871)

MORTLOCK, D. P.; ROBERTS, C. P., The Guide to Norfolk Churches (Cambridge: The Lutterworth Press, 2nd ed. rev., 2007)

MOXON, JOSEPH, Mechanick Exercises: or the Doctrine of Handy-works (London: 1703)

MUNBY, JULIAN, 'Medieval Carpentry in Chichester', in Down, ed., (1981)

MUNBY, JULIAN, 'Late-14th-Century Reconstruction of Westminster Hall', in Rodwell & Tatton-Brown, eds., Westminster II. The Art, Architecture and Archaeology of the Royal Palace, British Archaeological Association (2015), pp. 120-32

MUNBY, JULIAN; SPARKS, M., & TATTON-BROWN, T., 'Crown Post and King Strut Roofs in South-East England', Medieval Archaeology 27 (1983), pp. 123-135

NEWMAN, RUPERT, Oak-Framed Buildings (Lewes: The Guild of Master Craftsman Publications Ltd., 2005)

NICHOLSON, PETER, The Carpenter and Joiner's Assistant; containing practical rules for making all kinds of joints ... Also extracts from M. Belidor, M. du Hamel, M. de Buffon &c. On the strength of timber, with practical observations (London: Printed for I. and J. Taylor, 1797)

OSTENDORF, FRIEDRICH, Geschichte des Dachwerks (Berlin: 1908)

PARKER, J.H., Some Account of Domestic Architecture in England, 3 Vols. (Oxford: Parker, 1853-59)

PEARSON, SARAH, The Medieval Houses of Kent (London: HMSO 1994)

PEARSON, SARAH; BARNWELL P. S; ADAMS A.T., A Gazetteer of Medieval Houses in Kent (London: HMSO, 1994)

PEVSNER, NIKOLAUS et al, The Buildings of England (various county volumes)

PRICE, FRANCIS, The British Carpenter: or, A Treatise on Carpentry: containing the most concise and authentick rules of that art, in a more useful and extensive method, than has been made publick (London: Printed by C. Ackers... and sold by the Author..., 2nd ed., 1735)

PUGIN, A. W. N., The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (London: JohnWeale, 1841)

RACKHAM, OLIVER, Trees and Woodland in the British Landscape (London: Phoenix, 2001)

RACKHAM, OLIVER, Ancient Woodland: Its History, Vegetation and Uses in England (Dalbeattie: Castlepoint, new ed., 2003)

ROBERTS, EDWARD, Hampshire Houses 1250-1700 (Hampshire County Council, 2003)

ROBISON, JOHN, TREDGOLD, THOMAS, A Rudimentary Treatise on the Principles of Construction in the Carpentry and Joinery of Roofs (London, John Weale, 1859)

RONDELET, JEAN-BAPTISTE, Traite de l'art de batir (Paris: 1830-32)

ROSE, WALTER, The Village Carpenter (Hertford: Stobart Davies, 2001)

ROSS, PETER; METTEM, CHRISTOPHER; HOLLOWAY, ANDREW, Green Oak in Construction (High Wycombe: TRADA: 2007)

RUSKIN, JOHN, 'The Lamp of Truth', The Seven Lamps of Architecture (New York: Dover, 1989; first pub. 1849)

RYDER, P. F., Timber Framed Buildings in South Yorkshire (South Yorkshire County Archaeology Service)

SALAMAN, R. A., Dictionary of Woodworking Tools (London: Unwin Hyman Ltd, revised edn. 1989)

SALZMAN, L. F., Building in England Down to 1540 (Oxford, OUP, 1952)

SCHOFIELD, JOHN, Medieval London Houses (New Haven; London: Yale University Press for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, 1994)

SELLAR, W. D. H. (ed.), Moray: Province and People (Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 1993)

SHANKS, J. D., WALKER, P., 'Experimental Performance of Mortice and Tenon Connections in Green Oak', The Structural Engineer Vol. 83 (2005), Issue 17: p. 40-45

SLOCOMBE, PAMELA, Medieval Houses of Wiltshire (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1992)

SMIRKE, SIDNEY, 'Remarks on the Architectural History of Westminster Hall', Archaeologia XXVI (1836), pp. 406-421

SMITH, JAMES, The Carpenters Companion: being an accurate and compleat treatise of carpenters works; ... exemplified in forty-one copper-plates ...(London: printed for J. Millan, 1733)

SMITH, JAMES, A Specimen of Antient Carpentry: Consisting of Variety of Designs for Roofs ... (London: printed for the author, 1736)

SMITH, J. T., 'Medieval Aisled Halls and their Derivatives', Archaeological Journal CXII (1955), pp. 76-94.

SMITH, J. T., 'Medieval Roofs: A Classification', Archaeological Journal, Vol. 115, 1958, p. 111-149

SNELL, B. S., 'Some Ancient Building Terms', RIBA Journal, 18 December, 1926.

SNELL, B. S. 'More Ancient Building Terms', RIBA Journal, 22 December 1928.

SOBON, JACK; SCHROEDER, ROGER, Timber Frame Construction (North Adams, Mass.: Storey Books, 1984)

STELL, GEOFFREY; BAILLIE, MICHAEL, 'The Great Hall and Roof of Darnaway Castle, Moray', in Sellar (ed.), 1993, pp. 163-86

SUNLEY, JOHN; BEDDING, BARBARA (eds.), Timber in Construction (London: Batsford / Trada, 1985)

TATTON-BROWN, TIM, 'Building the Tower and Spire of Salisbury Cathedral', Antiquity 65 (1991), pp. 74-96

THOMPSON, M. W., The Medieval Hall (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1995)

TOBY MORRIS, E; BLACK, R. GARY; TOBRINER, STEPHEN O., 'Report on the Application of Finite Element Analysis to Historic Structures: Westminster Hall, London', Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Sep., 1995), pp. 336-347

TRACY, CHARLES, English Gothic Choir-stalls, 1200-1400 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 1987)

TRACY, CHARLES, English Medieval Furniture and Woodwork (London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1988)

TREDGOLD, THOMAS, Elementary Principles of Carpentry ... (London: J. Taylor, 2nd ed., 1828; 3rd ed., 1840)

TURNER, THOMAS HUDSON, Some Account of Domestic Architecture in England, Vol. I: from the conquest to the end of the thirteenth century (Oxford: Parker, 1851)

TWOPENNY, WILLIAM, Specimens of Ancient Woodwork (London: 1859)

TYMMS, SAMUEL, An Architectural and Historical Account of the Church of St. Mary, Bury St. Edmunds (Bury St Edmunds: 1845-54)

ULRICH, R. B., Roman Woodworking (London: Yale University Press, 2007)

UNGER, RICHARD W., The Art of Medieval Technology: Images of Noah the Shipbuilder (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1991)

VALLANCE, AYMER, Greater English Church Screens, being great roods, screenwork & rood-lofts in cathedral, monastic & collegiate churches in England & Wales (London, New York: B.T. Batsford, 1947)

Vernacular Architecture (Maney Publishing)

VITRUVIUS, The Ten Books on Architecture (New York: Dover, 1960)

WADDELL, GENE, 'The Design of the Westminster Hall Roof', Architectural History, Vol. 42 (1999), pp. 47-67

WALKER, JOHN (ed.), The English Medieval Roof: Crownpost to Kingpost (Essex Historic Buildings Group, 2011)

WOOD, MARGARET, The English Medieval House (London: Bracken Books, 1983)

YEOMANS, DAVID (ed.), The Development of Timber as a Structural Material (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999)

YEOMANS, DAVID, How Structures Work: Design and Behaviour from Bridges to Buildings (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009)

YUN SHENG HUANG; MARK, ROBERT; WELLMAN, AVERY M., 'Westminster Hall's Hammer-Beam Roof: A Technological Reconstruction', APT Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 1 (1988), pp. 8-16.

ZWERGER, KLAUS, Wood and Wood Joints: Building Traditions of Europe and Japan (Basel: Birkhauser, 1997)


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