The Encyclopaedia: M-R

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Mancetter Manor: Awaiting entry
Marton Church
Awaiting entry
Mason's Joint/Mitre: Awaiting entry
Middle Littleton
tithe barn:
Awaiting entry
Mortice: Slot or recess cut into a timber to receive a tenon.
Mortice & Tenon Joint: A joint fundamental to the carpentry of the Middle Ages, used to connect two timbers meeting perpendicularly or obliquely. The tenon is inserted into the mortice and then the joint is pegged. The joint works well in compression, but is poor in tension. Various types were developed; see below:
mortice and tenon joint
Mortice and tenon joint
bare-faced tenon  stub tenon
Left: bare-faced tenon - the tenon piece only has one shoulder. This joint is often used for arched braces. Right: stub-tenon joint.
housed mortice and tenon
Housed mortice and tenon joint.
This refinement is useful when the joint will be subject to high shearing forces, such as in a floor beam.
Literature: Brunskill (2007); Alcock et al (1996); Hewett (1997.)

Mullion: Main vertical division of a window
Noggings: Short lengths of timber inserted between studs, rafters etc. in order to stiffen them.
Passing Brace: Lightweight timber running diagonally across main vertical and horizontal timbers, typically from a post to a rafter and crossing a tie beam. Helps to stiffen a frame.
Passing braces
Generic aisled frame with passing braces.

Principal Frame: Transverse wooden framework of major structural, and often ornamental, importance, consisting of principal rafters (see below) and other major timbers; often corresponds with masonry bay divisions (see below and Fig. b, and King-post Truss).
Tie-Beam Roof generic
Generic 'double-framed' roof, some timbers omitted for clarity.

Principal rafter: Inclined timber of heavier scantling than common rafters; supports purlin(s) which in turn support common rafters; often corresponds with the bay divisions of a building (see above and Fig. b).
Purlin: Longitudinal roof timber supporting common rafters, usually set in the plane of the roof; framed into the principal rafters, and/or set into a masonry gable (see above and Fig. b).

Butt Purlin: Method of framing purlin to the rafter; see below.
Butt Purlin
Butt Purlins, Example at top is 'staggered'.

Purlin, Clasped:Awaiting entry; awaiting illustration
Queen Post: Strictly, a timber rising vertically from a tie beam to support a purlin or plate; set in pairs. Awaiting illustration
Queen Strut: Vertical timber rising from a tie beam to support a rafter or a collar; set in pairs.
queen-strut Truss   queen-strut Truss 2
Two examples of queen-strut trusses.

Rafter, Principal: See Principal Rafter above
Rafter, Common: See Common rafter.
Reversed Assembly: Similar to the English Tying Joint, but the wall plate is placed on top of the tie beam rather than vice-versa. See below:
Reversed assembly

Ridge:Longitudinal timber framed at the apex of a roof, often called a ridge piece.
In 1439 at St John’s Church, Bury St Edmunds, the ridge piece is called a ‘rof tre’.
More generally, the line where the inclined planes of a roof meet. See illustration.
Literature: Salzman (1952)